Mughal Emperor and their reign.
By : Samarjeet Singh | Updated On : 10 Jan, 2021
The Mughal reign began from the 16th century and lasted until the 19th century. This article lists all the Mughal emperors of India and is an important subject for the following examinations.
List of Mughal Emperors in India - (1526-1857)
|Babar||1526-1530||He was a direct descendant of Genghis Khan, and the founder of the Mughal Empire after his victories at the Battle of Panipat (1526) and the Battle of Khanwa.|
|Humayun||1530–1540||(Ruled by the Suri dynasty) Being young and inexperienced, he was considered a less effective ruler than Sher Shah Suri, who defeated him and established the Suri dynasty.|
|Suri Dynasty||1540-1555||No Mughal rule|
|Humayun||1555–1556||After the rule was restored, he was more integrated and effective from the early reign of 1530–1540.|
He left the unified kingdom for his son Akbar.
|Akbar||1556-1605||(Was one of the youngest rulers. Became ruler at the age of 13) He and Bairam Khan defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat and later achieved famous victories during the siege of Chittorgarh and the siege of Ranthambore. One of his most famous construction wonders was the fort of Lahore. He abolished the jizya tax levied on Hindus.|
|Jahangir||1605-1627||He had an open relationship with the British East India Company.|
|Shah Jahan||(1628–1658)||Under him, Mughal art and architecture flourished.|
He built the Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Jahangir's Tomb and Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. His son Aurangzeb died in captivity.
|Aurangzeb||1658-1707||He re-interpreted Islamic law and introduced Fatwa-e-Alamgiri.|
He captured the diamond mines of the Sultanate of Golconda and spent the major part of his last 27 years at war with the Maratha rebels and expanded the empire to its greatest extent.
|Bahadur Shah (also known as Muazzam / Shah Alam)||1707–1712||After his reign, the empire went into continuous decline due to lack of leadership qualities among his immediate successors. He released Shahuji, son of Shahuji, who was Shivaji's elder son.|
|Jahandar Shah||(1712-1713)||He was an unpopular incompetent emperor.|
|Furrukhsiyar||1713-1719||His reign marked the rebellion of the rebellious Syed Brothers, the slaughter of the rebel Banda.|
In 1717 he gave a decree to the English East India Company, in which he was given duty-free trading rights for Bengal, the Farman was recalled by the noted Murshid Quli Khan.
|Rafi ul-Dumit||1719||10th Mughal Emperor.|
He made Farkhasiyar a success.
He was proclaimed Emperor by the Syed Brothers.
|Rafi ud-Daulat||1719||The Mughal emperor was for a brief period in 1719.|
|Muhammad ibrahim||1720||An attempt was made to seize the throne at the behest of the Syed Brothers to depose Emperor Muhammad Shah.|
|Muhammad Shah (also known as Rangeela)||(1719-1720) (1720-1748)||He got rid of the Syed Brothers. Countered the emergence of the Marathas and in the process lost large areas of the Deccan and Malwa. Nadir-Shah's invasion of Persia suffered in 1739.|
|Ahmed Shah Bahadur||1748-1754||His minister Safdarjung was responsible for the Mughal civil war, during which the Mughal army massacred the Marathas during the Battle of Secunderabad.|
|Alamgir 2nd||1754-1759||He was killed by the plot of Imad-ul-Mulk and his Maratha ally Sadashivrao Bhau.|
|Shah Jahan 3rd||1759-1760||He was overthrown by Prince Mirza Jawan Bakht after the third battle of Panipat.|
|Shah Alam 2nd||1760-1806||He is known to have fought against the British East India Company during the Battle of Buxar and under the command of Mirza Najaf Khan, the Mughal army was reformed and thus known as one of the last effective Mughal emperors.|
|Akbar Shah 2nd||1806-1837||He named Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh. Although he was under British protection, his royal name was removed from official coincidence after a brief dispute with the British East India Company.|
|Bahadur Shah 2nd||1837-1857||He was the last Mughal emperor. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, they were ousted by the British and exiled to Burma.|